Similarities between Synapsian and Life's languages
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Similarities in vocabulary
|annti||you||anata (jp, あなた)||It is informally shortened in Japanese to anta (あんた).|
|agada||thank you||arigatou (jp, ありがとう)||Origin in Synapsian is annti+gada (thank) which is different than in Japanese - aru (to be) + gatai (hardship).|
|chi||life energy||chi (zh, 氣)|
|genhe||present|| Japanese pronunciation of Chinese 現 (meaning: present, in Chinese xian) + he (meaning unknown).
Japanese words for present are 現在 (genzai) and 現行 (genkou).
| he could be a cognate to:
|ha||day||hi (jp, 日)|
|hoa||book||hon (jp, 本) from běn (zh, 本)||Cf. notes for nangahen. Similarity is more obvious when we treat Japanese "on" as a nasalised o. The original character is derived from a tree (木, modernly 树) being marked on the root. By metaphor the meaning of the character became "main"; combined with 根，the modern character for "root", it has the meaning that is expressed in English as "the root cause of something". It is interesting to note how this syntactical change also occurred in Synapsian.|
|kanta||sad||kanashii (jp, 悲しい)||Root of the Japanese word is "kana". This pair could be used to analyse adjectives in Synapsian.|
|Kihko||memory-storage service||kioku (jp, 記憶, meaning: memory) from jìyì (zh, 記憶, meaning: to remember)||Cf. notes for nangahen.|
|kyat'sj||official capital, not a large city||shi (zh, 市， meaning: city)||In Mandarin, this is pronounced with the tongue rolled upwards, but according to TsukiRep it is pronounced between the "sh" in "shell" and the "ch" in "cheese".|
|madaika||who knows?||shiru mono ka? (jp, 知るものか, literally: Do I know?, native)||There is a similarity when we leave out shiru (to know).|
|nangahen||human||ningen (jp, 人間, meaning: humanity) from rénjiān (zh, meaning: human world)||What's interesting is that the Synapsian word is more similar to Japanese loanword than Chinese original word. Such a pattern could suggest that Synapsian has undergone similar changes to Japanese or that it was based on it.|
|nane||popular world for human||nin (Japanese pronunciation of Chinese character 人 - rén in Chinese)||See above.|
|shosha||project||shousha (jp, 商社, meaning: trading company) from Chinese roots (the word itself doesn't exist in Chinese)|
|tenka||time||toki (jp, 時, time) or jikan (jp, 時間, time) from Chinese shíjiān.||Likely a mix of these two words. Character 間 (Japanese pronunciation: kan) means "interval".|
|thansj||angel||tenshi (jp, 天使) from tiānshǐ (zh, 天使)|
|tsuki||TSUKI (project), moon||tsuki (jp, 月)|
|urmai||wine-like beverage||umai (jp, うまい, meaning: tasty)|
|xatensj||I, me||watashi (jp, 私)||There is a similar exchange (x->w) in word xo (see below).|
|xo||object indicator||wo (jp, を)||There is no information about Synapsian grammar which makes closer analysis of this indicator impossible.|
- All loanwords are marked as such.
The following are proposed translations of longer sentences known in Synapsian.
|Synapsian||Proposed English||Breakdown of sentence|
|Hinnhan sjiten kudtasja.||We request everyone to leave.||
|S'kan xo setsjna.||Unlink the world.||
This sentence in Japanese would be: Sekai wo setsu shiro.
|Nokra xo jomna.||Unlock the rest.||
Translation to Japanese isn't as straightforward as above. Translation of jomna in particular needs to be investigated better.
Karamarea is of particular interest because instead of being similar to Sinosphere languages, it bears similarity to Indo-European languages. Cause of it remains unknown.
Usage of octal system (base 8 counting) was suggested to be used by Proto-Indo-Europeans. The evidence of this is very slim but there aren't any other significant cases of octal system being used in natural languages of Life.
|tre||3||tri, trei||three (English), drei (German), tri (Proto-Slavic)|
|sije||7||septm̥||siedem (Polish), seven (English)||One interesting thing is exchange e->ie that occurred after some consonants in both Synapsian and Polish (and some other Slavic languages). Another example of this is word "pie" below.|
|nau||0||ney (meaning: none)||nie (no in Polish), no, nay (English)||Similar words exist in other Slavic languages.|
|pie||4||penkʷe (meaning: five)||pięć (Polish)||4 seems cognate to Indo-European 5. Cause unknown.|
|moe||8||mē (meaning: many)||more (English)||The theory mentioned above (octal system being the original system of Indo-European) assumes that word "nine" originates from "new". Therefore it seems plausible that 8 originates from more (or vice versa).|
In Finnish, the words for 8 and 9 are kahdeksan and yhdeksän, which are postulated to have been derived from "two less than ten" and "one less than ten" respectively. This bears a similarity to how Synapsian represents numerals between 8 and 16.